Is the provision concerning a VAT group, in accordance with sec. 2 para. 2 no. 2 of the German VAT Act, compatible with Union law – and if so, how far does the scope of the VAT group extend? The V. Senate of the Federal Fiscal Court has now taken the opportunity to refer these two questions to the ECJ (Ref. V R 40/19). Some people may experience a sense of déjà vu as regards the first question referred, as the XI. Senate of the Federal Fiscal Court recently referred this question to the ECJ itself (Ref. XI R 16/18). However, the V. Senate goes beyond the question referred by the XI. Senate, at least in terms of its second question. The outcome is not only important for the public sector, but also for non-profit institutions and for mixed holdings.